Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) is a member of the Rosaceae family and most popularly cultivated in Turkey and India.
The seeds of apricots are used to extract oil. Apricot oil is used in perfumes, shampoos, and medicines.
Apricot seeds are rich in fatty acids and proteins (1). It is believed that apricot seeds can reduce the risk of cancer, but currently the research in this area is inconclusive.
In fact, due to the presence of compounds such as amygdalin and laetrile, apricot seeds are toxic in nature. The use of apricot seeds for cancer therapy is controversial due to the lack of scientific evidence and clinical trials on humans.
Let us look at the nutrient content, recommended dosage, and the scientific studies on the effect of apricot seeds on cancer cells.
Table Of Contents
What Nutrients Do Apricot Seeds Contain?
- Apricot seeds are rich in oil, which makes up for 50% of its total content. It also contains healthy unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic, linolenic, and oleic acids (1).
- Around 25% of an apricot seed is protein, which is predominantly albumin (1).
- The total fiber content of an apricot seed is only 5% (1).
- Apricot seeds contain amygdalin (vitamin B17) in the highest concentration. It is considered to be one of the most essential enzymes found in apricot kernels (1).
There is a lot of debate surrounding the consumption of apricot seeds. It is believed that it could be fatal. Let’s check out the facts below.
Will Eating Apricot Seeds Kill You?
Chronic ingestion of apricot kernel is reported to cause cyanide toxicity (2). Apricot seeds contain various toxins such as cyanide, amygdalin (a cyanogen), and β-glucosidase (an enzyme catalyst) (2), (3), (4).
Biting on the seeds hydrolyzes amygdalin and β-glucosidase, which increases the toxicity of apricot kernels (5). Several cases of cyanide poisoning caused by the ingestion of apricot kernels have been reported (5), (6).
Annals of Tropical Paediatrics also published a retrospective diagnostic study on cyanide intoxication caused by eating apricot seeds in 13 children (7).
Though the symptoms may not appear immediately, toxic effects such as nausea, headaches, lethargy, insomnia, lowering of blood pressure, and pain in muscles and joints have been reported (8).
So, here is the most important question…
Can Apricot Seeds Help Treat Cancer?
Laetrile or vitamin B17 is a synthetic form of amygdalin. It is a cyanogenic glycoside present in apricot seeds. Laetrile has been used to treat cancer as an alternative therapy (11).
In an in vitro study published in Food Science and Biotechnology, it was reported that the extracts of sweet apricot and bitter almond kernels have antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. It states that apricot extracts can prevent the growth of human breast, colon, and hepatocellular (liver) cancer cell lines (12).
An in vitro study has reported the possibility of using apricot kernels as a part of dietary anticancer therapies. It was observed that the amygdalin present in apricot seeds could suppress the development of cancer in HT-29 colon cancer cells (13).
Amygdalin has been reported to induce apoptosis (cell death) in cancer cells by inhibiting the cell cycle. The authors claim that it is a “mistaken belief” that amygdalin causes cyanide toxicity (14). However, clinical trials are still required to prove these effects on humans.
A systematic review of 36 studies found that the data available on the potential benefits of laetrile (found in apricots seeds) for cancer treatment is inconclusive (15).
Since most of the information available on the anticancer effect of apricot seeds is anecdotal, the success rate of this therapy has not been reported in the public domain.
The mixed research claims and reports of toxicity of apricot seeds make them a less than ideal treatment for cancer. Even the National Cancer Institute (NCI) does not approve of it (18).
Though there are mixed reports about the cyanide toxicity of apricot seeds, you can consume them in small amounts. Find out how in the next section.
How To Eat Apricot Seeds?
The pit found in the center of the apricot fruit contains the seed or kernel. Remove the apricot pit from the fruit. Use a nutcracker to open the pit and expose the seed. Throw away the pit and eat the seeds. Consult a doctor immediately if you experience any side effects, such as nausea or dizziness.
How Many Apricot Seeds Should You Eat A Day?
There is no accurate recommended dosage available as it depends on many factors, such as the age, weight, and health of the person consuming apricot seeds.
However, the European Food Safety Authority has reported that adults should not consume more than 3 small raw apricot kernels or half of one large kernel, and toddlers should avoid it completely. The presence of cyanide in the apricot kernels can be fatal to children as the toxicity of cyanide is dependent on body weight (8)
Apricot seeds have some nutrients and have been used as an alternative therapy for cancer treatment.
They contain amygdalin that has exhibited some anticancer properties in a few in vitro studies. However, it also releases cyanide after it is consumed.
Cases of excessive consumption of apricot seeds that led to cyanide poisoning have also been reported. The onset of symptoms depends on various factors, such as body weight and age.
Some of the symptoms of consuming apricot seeds include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and increase in heart rate and breathing.
The underlying mechanism of amygdalin inhibiting cancer cells is still controversial. The few studies that have been conducted are not substantial enough to prove that apricot seeds can treat cancer, especially considering the risks involved.
Frequently Asked Questions
Do apricot seeds contain arsenic?
There is no data available on the presence of arsenic in apricot seeds. However, they contain a toxin called amygdalin that releases cyanide, which is fatal to humans and cattle. So, do not ingest more than 3 apricot seeds in a day.
Can you take apricot seeds with chemo?
The anticancer effect of apricot seeds has not been scientifically proven. They should be avoided with chemotherapy and otherwise. Always consult a licensed medical practitioner before consuming apricot seeds.
Is apricot seed the same as almond?
No, an apricot seed is the kernel found in the pit of the apricot fruit. An almond is a nut commonly consumed for the many health benefits it provides.
- Utilization of wild apricot kernel press cake for extraction of protein isolate, Journal of Food Science and Technology, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- An unusual presentation of chronic cyanide toxicity from self-prescribed apricot kernel extract, BMJ Case Reports, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Cyanide ion, PubChem, National Center for Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Amygdalin, PubChem, National Center for Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Acute cyanide toxicity caused by apricot kernel ingestion, Annals of Emergency Medicine, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Severe cyanide poisoning from an alternative medicine treatment with amygdalin and apricot kernels in a 4-year-old child, Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, SpringerLink.
- Cyanide poisoning caused by ingestion of apricot seeds, Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, Taylor & Francis Online.
- Apricot kernels pose risk of cyanide poisoning, European Food Safety Authority.
- Multiple Cases of Cyanide Poisoning by Apricot Kernels in Children from Gaza, Pediatrics, AAP News & Journals Gateway.
- Import Alert 62-01, US Food & Drug Administration.
- Molecular mechanism of amygdalin action in vitro: review of the latest research, Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, Taylor & Francis Online.
- In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities of bitter almond and sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels, Food Science and Biotechnology, SpringerLink.
- The anti-proliferative effect of apricot and peach kernel extracts on human colon cancer cells in vitro, BMC Complement Alternative Medicine, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Amygdalin from Apricot Kernels Induces Apoptosis and Causes Cell Cycle Arrest in Cancer Cells: An Updated Review, Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Laetrile for cancer: a systematic review of the clinical evidence, Supportive Care in Cancer, SpringerLink.
- The case against laetrile: the fraudulent cancer remedy, Cancer, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Amygdalin, quackery or cure?, Phytomedicine, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Laetrile/Amygdalin (PDQ®)–Patient Version, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services.
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