Thyroid Diet: Foods To Eat For Hypothyroidism & Hyperthyroidism

Because not all foods will be good for you if you have a malfunctioning thyroid gland

Medically reviewed by Madhu Sharma, RD Madhu Sharma Madhu SharmaRD
Written by , MSc (Biotechnology), ISSA Certified Fitness Nutritionist Charushila Biswas MSc (Biotechnology), ISSA Certified Fitness Nutritionist linkedin_icon Experience: 6 years
Edited by , BA (Literature & Psychology), PG Diploma Arshiya Syeda BA (Literature & Psychology), PG Diploma linkedin_icon Experience: 7 years
Fact-checked by , BSc (Life Sciences), Certified Health & Nutrition Life Coach Himanshi Mahajan BSc (Life Sciences), Certified Health & Nutrition Life Coach linkedin_icon Experience: 2 years
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A thyroid diet is crucial for normalizing thyroid function. The thyroid gland, situated below Adam’s apple, secretes hormones that regulate development, growth, sleep, and menstrual cycle (1). Sometimes, the thyroid can become underactive (hypothyroidism) or overactive (hyperthyroidism). This may cause sudden weight loss or weight gain, stunted growth, depression, irregular periods, and hinder brain development (2).

According to the American Thyroid Association (ATA), it is estimated that over 12% of Americans will develop a thyroid disease some time in their life. It is further estimated that 20 million US citizens have some type of thyroid disease and over 60% of those with thyroid disease are unaware of their issue.

Therefore, it is recommended to go on a thyroid diet. This post tells you what to eat if you have hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, along with sample diet plans for each. Scroll down!

protip_icon At A Glance: Thyroid Diet
  • Principle: Focuses on including nutrient-rich, anti-inflammatory foods and avoiding specific food groups (like gluten-rich foods) to support optimal thyroid function and manage related symptoms.
  • Purpose: To help regulate thyroid hormone production and promote overall thyroid health.
  • Who It Is For: Individuals with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.
  • Duration: Long-term
  • Who Should Avoid: People with a history of eating disorders, pregnant or breastfeeding individuals, and people taking anticoagulants and antibiotics.
  • Cons: Dietary restrictions may be challenging to follow in the long term. It may lead to nutritional deficiencies.

Hypothyroidism Diet – Foods To Eat

Hypothyroidism can lead to a disrupted menstrual cycle, weight gain, constipation, goiter, depression, dry skin, hair fall, muscle fatigue, slow heart rate, high blood cholesterol, and a puffy face. Apart from medicines, you can consume these foods to boost your thyroid function.

1. Iodized Salt

According to the American Thyroid Association, iodine is needed for the production of the thyroid hormone. Iodine deficiency can lead to hypothyroidism and goiter (3). Since your body cannot produce iodine naturally, you should eat thyroid-healing foods that contain a good amount of iodine. And the best way to do that is to consume iodized salt.

2. Brazil Nuts

Brazil nuts are good for hypothyroidism
Image: IStock

Brazil nuts are a great source of the mineral selenium that helps catalyze the conversion of the inactive thyroid hormone to the active form. Scientists have found that Brazil nut supplementation improved thyroid hormone levels (4).

Selenium also helps reduce inflammation and inhibits cancer cell proliferation. You can consume up to 8 Brazil nuts per day. Do not eat too many as it may lead to nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting.

3. Fish

Fish are rich in omega-3 fatty acids and selenium (5). Omega-3 fatty acids help lower LDL cholesterol, and selenium keeps your thyroid hormone kicking (6), (7). Consume salmon, sardines, and tuna to counteract hypothyroidism. You can have 3-5 oz fish every day. Make sure not to overcook the fish.

4. Bone Broth

Add bone broth to your hypothyroidism diet
Image: IStock

By consuming bone broth, you can kill two birds with one stone. First, bone broth contains the amino acids glycine and proline that help repair the digestive lining and improve hypothyroidism. Second, hypothyroidism can fracture your bones and having bone broth can help strengthen your bones (8).

Consume a cup of bone broth for lunch or dinner. Toss in some vegetables. Make sure to cook the vegetables properly. Raw cruciferous vegetables like cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, and brassica seeds contain goitrin, an active goitrogen that reduces thyroid hormone secretion (9). However, proper cooking destroys the goitrogen factor.

5. Vegetables And Fruits

Green leafy vegetables, colorful vegetables, and fruits are great sources of minerals, vitamins, antioxidantsi  A man-made or natural substance that resists cell damage or slows down the process of damage. Fruits and vegetables contain antioxidants. , and dietary fiber. However, you should be careful if you have hypothyroidism because a few veggies and fruits can hinder the production of the thyroid hormones and are known as goitrogens.

Vegetables such as cauliflower, spinach, kale, broccoli, cabbage, radish, peach, avocado, and mustard greens are goitrogens (10). However, cooking these veggies and fruits properly can render the goitrogens inactive.

Katie, a lifestyle vlogger, shared how she treated her hypothyroidism symptoms . She included leafy greens in her diet and avoided cruciferous vegetables and sprouts as they are hard to digest. She says, “The ones I like to eat plenty of are things like asparagus and a lot of spinach. You need the iron, iodine, and different things from those vegetables to really help your body and your thyroid function more properly and you want to make sure you’re able to absorb the iodine which again is really important for that thyroid function (i).”

6. Seaweed

Seaweed salad can be a healthy addition to a hypothyroidism diet
Image: IStock

Seaweed like nori, kelp, and kombu help treat hypothyroidism as they are great sources of iodine, B-vitamins, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid. They absorb more iodine from the sea and also contain an amino acid called tyrosine, which is the most important amino acid to form thyroid hormones (11).

They help upregulate the thyroid hormone production, uplift mood, prevent lethargy, and improve brain function. You can have up to 150 mcg of seaweed per day.

protip_icon Quick Tip
You can add seaweed to your soups, use dried seaweed as a garnish, or use the seaweed sheets as wraps to up your iodine intake.

7. Dairy

Low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese are rich in iodine and selenium that help boost thyroid hormone production and activation. They are also rich in the amino acid tyrosine that helps combat the symptoms of hypothyroidism like depression and fatigue (12).

Have a glass of milk, half a cup of yogurt, and ⅙ cup of cheese per day to increase the thyroid hormone levels.

8. Beef And Chicken

Your thyroid function can also be accelerated by providing your body with the required amounts of zinc. It is mostly found in beef and chicken and can help convert triiodothyronine (T3) to thyroxine (T4). This conversion is of great importance because T3 is the inactive form while T4 is the active form of the thyroid hormone. Consume at least 3 oz of chicken breast or lean cuts of beef to boost thyroxine production. Zinc supplementation also improves the hormonal balance (13).

9. Eggs

Eggs, especially the yolk portion, are a great source of iodine and can help alleviate hypothyroidism (14). Include whole eggs 2-3 times in a week in your diet, depending on your lipid profilei  A common blood test to check the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. It helps detect any irregularities related to cardiovascular diseases. .

protip_icon Did You Know?
Boiling eggs for more than 10 minutes can change the egg protein structure and reduce its iodine content (14).

10. Shellfish

Shellfish are good for hypothroidism
Image: IStock

Shellfish like shrimp and lobster are packed with iodine and zinc. And, as you know, iodine and zinc can help boost the production of the thyroid hormone. Consume at least 3 oz shellfish to improve your thyroid levels (15).

11. Extra Virgin Coconut Oil

Virgin coconut oil contains high levels of lauric acid, a medium-chain triglyceride that is converted into monolaurin and has antimicrobiali  An agent produced by a living body that kills or stops the growth of fungi, bacteria, algae, and parasites. and anti-inflammatoryi  Any substance that stops or decreases inflammation. They also help reduce pain, redness, tenderness, and fever. properties and improves metabolismi  The complex process of chemical reactions that change food into energy in our bodies in order to sustain life. (16).

Add 1-2 tablespoons of extra virgin coconut oil to your smoothie or use it as a salad dressing.

12. Flax Seeds

Flax seeds are an important part of hypothyroidism diet
Image: IStock

Flax seeds are a great source of omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, selenium, and iodine (17). Flax seeds are also good for weight loss (18).

Add 2-3 tablespoons ground flax seeds to your smoothie or breakfast cereal, or use flax seed oil for cooking.

13. Legumes

Legumes are rich in iodine and zinc and are gluten-free (19). You can consume lentils, beans, bean sprouts, chickpeas, etc. to boost your thyroid gland hormone secretion.

14. Fiber-Rich Foods

Add fiber-rich foods to your diet because if you have hypothyroidism, chances are you also experience indigestion and constipation. Fiber helps improve bowel movement and digestion (20).

Include foods such as papaya, cooked green leafy veggies, and gluten-free whole grains to improve your digestion. Here’s a list of high-fiber foods for weight loss.

15. Sunflower Seeds

Sunflower seeds are brilliant sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (21). Polyunsaturated fats have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may help alleviate symptoms of hyperthyroidism (22).

You can consume them raw or roasted or incorporate them in your meals such as salad toppings, smoothies, baked goods, and breakfast bowls.

16. Water

Water helps hydrate your body and flush out toxins (23). Drink 3-4 liters of clean water per day to help your cells function properly. Though water may not directly help you tackle hypothyroidism, drinking enough of it can help your organs function properly.

These were the 15 foods you should consume if you have hypothyroidism. Here’s your diet chart.

Sample Hypothyroidism Diet Plan

Note:Consult your doctor before starting this diet plan.

MealsWhat To Eat
Early Morning (7:00 – 7:30 am)1 cup warm water with juice of half a lime + 1 Brazil nut + Mixed seeds mixture
Breakfast (8:15 – 8:45 am)1 boiled egg + oatmeal with apple and flax seed powder + 3 Brazil nuts
Lunch (12:00 – 12:30 pm)Seaweed salad with 1 tablespoon extra virgin coconut oil or shrimp lettuce wrap with salsa dip
Evening Snack (4:00 pm)1 peach + 1 cup yogurt bowl
Dinner (7:00 pm)1 cup bone broth/grilled salmon/lentil soup with thoroughly cooked vegetables

Avoid consuming the foods mentioned below.

Foods To Avoid To Treat Hypothyroidism

  • Raw cruciferous vegetables like cabbage, cauliflower, turnip,etc.
  • Gluten-containing foods.
  • High-sugar foods as uncontrolled insulin spikes deteriorate the hypothyroidism condition.
  • Junk food and processed foods, like deep-fried foods, batter-fried foods, potato wafers, French fries, etc. These foods have a truckload of sodium but no iodine or nutritional value. They will only increase the cholesterol levels and take a toll on your health.
  • Green tea. There are many studies that have confirmed that green tea possesses anti-thyroid properties and consuming excessive green tea can cause hypothyroidism (24). Herbal teas for thyroid health can also prove beneficial.

If you have an overactive thyroid, you must go on a hyperthyroidism diet. Here’s a list of foods you can eat:

Hyperthyroidism Diet – Foods To Eat

Hyperthyroidism leads to weight loss, increased heart rate, anxiety, irritability, irregular periods, bulging eyes, insomnia, difficulty in concentrating, increased hunger, and moist skin (25). Apart from your doctor-prescribed medicines, certain foods can also help with hypothyroidism treatment at home. Here’s the list.

1. Raw Fruits And Vegetables

Raw cruciferous vegetables or leafy greens are goitrogens, i.e., they inhibit the production of the thyroid hormones (9). This is exactly what you need as your thyroid is overactive.

Consume broccoli, spinach, kale, bok choy, cabbage, lettuce, Chinese cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, radish, collard greens, rocket spinach, Brussels sprouts, bell pepper, tomato, apple, berries, kiwi, orange, lemon, grapefruit, etc.

2. Millets And Brown Rice

Millets and brown rice also have high goitrogenic activity (9). They are a great source of dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. You can consume ½-1 cup brown rice or millets per day to suppress the overproduction of the thyroid hormone.

3. Lean Proteins

Have chicken breast, fish, mushroom, soy chunks, and legumes to help build lean muscle mass. Hyperthyroidism leads to an increased appetite and rapid weight loss. Since proteins take much longer to digest, they will keep you full for a longer duration (26).

4.  Herbs

Basil, oregano, and rosemary are anti-inflammatory in nature and can help alleviate the problem of hyperthyroidism (27). These are amazing herbs for thyroid and can make a huge difference in your health.

These are the four main food groups that can act as a dietary aid to treat hyperthyroidism. Here’s your diet chart.

Sample Hyperthyroidism Diet Chart

Note:Consult your doctor before starting this diet. May vary from person to person as per the activity level.

MealsWhat To Eat
Early Morning (7:00 – 7:30 am)2 cups room-temperature water
Breakfast (8:15 – 8:45 am)Tomato+apple+grapefruit smoothie and 2 boiled eggs
Mid-Morning (10:30 am)1 medium cup baby carrots with a dash of lime juice and sea salt
Lunch (12:30 – 1:00 pm)Tuna/chicken/mushroom salad with spinach, asparagus, kale, tomato, and tofu
Evening Snack (4:00 pm)370 ml watermelon juice + 20 kernels of in-shell pistachios
Dinner (7:00 – 7:30 pm)Kidney bean chili or grilled fish with herbs and veggies

Now, let’s take a look at the foods to avoid if you have hyperthyroidism.

Foods To Avoid To Treat Hyperthyroidism

There is a huge selection of foods to eat for thyroid health. However, just like there are thyroid healing foods, there are foods to avoid with hypothyroidism. Scroll down below for the list –

  • Iodine-, zinc-, and selenium-rich foods, such as shellfish, oysters, seaweed, eggs, and Brazil nuts
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Milk and milk products
  • Alcohol and aerated drinks
  • Packaged or artificially flavoredi  Non-natural flavors that are produced in a lab to emulate and provide the taste of natural ingredients. and colored foods

Other Useful Tips

  • Eat every 2 hours.
  • Consume fiber-rich, green, leafy veggies and probiotics for thyroid support.
  • Avoid drinking water immediately after breakfast, lunch, or dinner.
  • Consume vitamin and mineral supplements.
  • Consume adequate protein. You can consult a registered dietitiani  An expert with specialized training in foods and nutrition who assesses patients’ health needs and curates a customized diet plan. in this regard.
  • Get your daily dose of healthy fats by consuming flaxseeds, olive oil, flaxseed oil, etc.

Infographic: Hypothyroidism: What To Eat And What To Avoid

Hypothyroidism can lead to weight gain, hormonal imbalance, high cholesterol levels, and dry skin. Medicines, along with simple changes in your diet, can help manage this condition. Check out the infographic below for the different foods to eat and avoid to help improve your thyroid health and overall well-being.

hypothyroidism what to eat and what to avoid (infographic)

Illustration: StyleCraze Design Team

Designing a thyroid diet plan must be done keeping in mind the type of thyroid condition you have, like hypothyroidism (inactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). Hypothyroidism can disrupt the menstrual cycle and cause weight gain and constipation. Consume foods rich in iodine, selenium, zinc, and other essential nutrients. Cook vegetables like spinach, cauliflower, and kale properly as they contain goitrogens that prevent thyroid hormone production. However, hyperthyroidism, which causes weight loss and increased heart rate, can be managed by eating the same vegetables and practicing stress management for thyroid health. Alternatively, in terms of stress management, meditation for thyroid health may also be considered. Consult a dietitian for a customized diet chart, depending on your health condition.

Frequently Asked Questions

What should people with a thyroid problem not eat?

If you have hypothyroidism, avoid consuming raw, cruciferous veggies, sugary foods, junk food, processed food, foods containing gluten, and green tea.
If you have hyperthyroidism, avoid consuming iodine, zinc, and selenium-rich foods, artificial sweeteners, milk and milk products, artificially colored and flavored foods, Brazil nuts, seaweed, aerated drinks, and alcohol.

What are some natural remedies for thyroid problems?

You can heal your thyroid naturally by eating the right foods and avoiding the foods that may aggravate your thyroid problem. Keep stress away and sleep well.

How can I lose weight when I have a thyroid problem?

Avoid consuming high-calorie and zero-nutrition value foods. Trans fats, processed foods, sugary foods, animal fat, butter, margarine, and junk foods have to go off the menu. You must also do cardio regularly. Do resistance band exercises or lift weights twice a week. Eat healthy foods and take your medicines.

Are bananas good for the thyroid?

If you have hypothyroidism, consuming bananas in moderation is good for your health.

Is coffee good for the thyroid?

Yes. Coffee has no documented side effects on the thyroid gland and its functions (28). However, it may interfere with thyroid medication. Consult your doctor if you are on thyroid medication.

Does the thyroid affect sleep?

Yes. The presence of too much thyroid hormone (in hypothyroidism) can cause sleep disturbances (29).

Is chocolate good for the thyroid?

Anecdotal evidence suggests that the intake of chocolate is good for the thyroid. However, research is limited in this regard.

Is onion good for thyroid patients?

It’s unclear. While animal studies reported thyroid protective effects of onions, human studies gave unclear results. A study found that consuming onion is inversely associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in women, while the researchers didn’t notice any association between onion and thyroid in men(30). Consult your doctor before consuming onions.

Is cucumber good for the thyroid?

Anecdotal evidence suggests that including cucumbers in your diet is good for thyroid. However, limited data is available to prove this claim.

Do stress causes thyroid?

No. Stress alone will not cause thyroid disorder, but it can worsen the situation.

Key Takeaways

  • Include foods rich in iodine and selenium such as whole grains, dairy products, and seafood for those who suffer from hypothyroidism.
  • Foods that include raw fruits and vegetables, lean proteins, and herbs should be consumed by people suffering from hyperthyroidism.
  • In a thyroid diet, processed foods and added sugars should be kept to a minimum.
  • Gluten should be avoided since it may affect how well thyroid hormones are absorbed.
thyroid diet

Image: Stable Diffusion/StyleCraze Design Team


Articles on StyleCraze are backed by verified information from peer-reviewed and academic research papers, reputed organizations, research institutions, and medical associations to ensure accuracy and relevance. Read our editorial policy to learn more.

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Madhu Sharma is a member of the National Executive Committee of IDA. She has been associated for almost three decades with Pediatric Nutrition at PGI while serving in the Gastroenterology Department (20 years) and then the Advanced Pediatric Center (10 yrs) at PGIMER, Chandigarh.

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