Does Birth Control Make You Gain Weight? The Science Behind It

Written by Varsha Patnaik

You may have heard from your friend that she probably gained a few pounds after starting birth control. This leads to the question of the millennia— “Does birth control make you gain weight?” Even after decades of research, medical experts are still scratching their heads as to whether birth control causes you to gain weight or not. Some studies suggest that certain types of birth control may make you gain weight (1), whereas other studies suggest that birth control may not cause any weight gain (2).

This article will talk about what research has to say about birth control causing weight gain, factors that may contribute to weight gain associated with control, what type of birth control causes weight gain and more.

Does Birth Control Cause Weight Gain?

There is so much mystery surrounding birth control and weight gain that nobody knows what is fiction and what is actual scientific fact. With the jury still out, let us see what both sides have to say about this.

  • Contraceptive Pill And Weight Gain

Birth control pill or “the pill” as it is popularly known, is one of the birth control methods that is widely researched today. Research has shown that the pill may not cause women to gain weight. A study was conducted to understand the changes in weight after the administration of low-dose oral contraceptives. Results showed that the women did not gain weight, thus proving that birth control pills do not cause weight gain (2).

  • Birth Control Shot And Weight Gain

While the pill does not cause you to gain weight, research has suggested that there is one type of birth control that may contribute to gaining those extra pounds. Medroxyprogesterone acetate or commonly known as the birth control shot, contains the hormone progestin which is given every three months to prevent pregnancy. A study was conducted where 703 women were given the birth control shot and their body weight was measured for three years. The researchers concluded that the women had gained 11 pounds over three years with a 3.4% increase in body fat (1).

As you can see, there are studies that show the pill may not cause you to gain weight, but on the other hand, the shot has been suggested to cause weight gain. Let us read on further to understand what are the possible factors that may contribute to birth control causing weight gain.

Possible Contributing Factors For Weight Gain Associated With Birth Control

Possible Contributing Factors For Weight Gain

Shutterstock

With the debate still going on about does birth control make you gain weight or not, experts have found factors that may contribute to women gaining weight post birth control.

  • Genetics

Did you know that your genes may play a role in gaining weight while you’re under birth control? A study was conducted on 276 women from diverse ethnical backgrounds to check the effect of etonogestrel implants, a type of hormonal implant, on weight. They found that the women had gained around seven pounds over twenty seven months. The researchers suggested that this weight gain to the variation of the gene, Estrogen Receptor 1, that is responsible for the production of milk (3). However, the study also states the necessity of further genetic research to substantiate its findings.

  • Water Retention

Many women stop taking birth control once they see that they have gained a few extra pounds. Researchers have indicated that this gain in weight may be due to water retention in your body (4). While this has been seen in some cases, it is not a matter of concern, because doctors say that this weight will go away in a matter of a few months.

Water retention, and genetics are factors that you did not know, but may be contributing to weight gain post birth control consumption. Let us see what research has to say about various types of birth control and weight gain.

What Research Says About Birth Control Types And Weight Gain

Birth Control Types And Weight Gain

Shutterstock

“Does birth control make you gain weight?” Do all types of birth control make you gain weight? Let us see what science says about different types of birth control and whether they cause you to gain those extra pounds or not.

  • Birth Control Patch

Birth control patch or the contraceptive patch is used by many women all over the world. It is a patch that you put on your skin which suppresses your ovulation by releasing progesterone and estrogen into your bloodstream. These hormones thicken the cervical mucus, which makes it difficult for the sperm to move inside your cervix. Researchers conducted a review of forty nine studies to understand the effect of birth control patches on weight gain. They found that the patch had no effect on women’s body weight (5).

  • Intrauterine Devices (IUD)

Intrauterine device is a t-shaped coil that is inserted into a woman’s cervix to stop the sperm from fertilizing the egg. A study was done to see the effect of hormonal iud, copper iud and birth control implant on weight on a group of women between the ages of 15 to 45 years for 12 months. The results showed a slight decrease in weight for women using copper and hormonal IUDs while hormonal implant users showed a slight increase in weight (6). This suggests that IUDs may not cause any weight gain, but more research needs to be conducted in this area.

  • Vaginal Rings

Before we understand whether vagina rings cause us to gain weight or not, let us first understand how a vaginal ring works. A vagina ring is a plastic ring that is inserted into your vagina. It contains two hormones that are essential for preventing ovulation— progesterone and estrogen. By thickening your cervical mucus and thinning the lining of your uterus, the vaginal ring prevents you from ovulating. A study was conducted to see the effect of Nuvaring and an oral contraceptive on body weight. The results showed that there was no difference in body weight in both groups of women (7).

  • Birth Control Implant

This is a type of birth control where a flexible, plastic rod is put under the skin of your upper arm. It releases the hormone progesterone which thickens your cervical mucus, preventing ovulation. A study was conducted to see the effect of birth control implants on women’s observed and perceived body weight for three months. The researchers found that there was no evidence of observed body weight in women due to the implant, even though they reported a perceived gain in their weight (8).

Each of these instruments are highly effective methods used by women for birth control, but are not the only ones. Why don’t we go ahead and see the type of pills and their effect on body weight?

What Types Of Pills Are Most Likely To Cause Weight Gain?

While the above methods have been indicated by research to not affect body weight in women, there are other methods of birth control that women opt for today. The most common and one of the most popular methods of birth control is pills. Many women have reported that they had gained weight after going on the pill. Let us take a look at what researchers have to say about this.

  • Combined Pills

Also known as Combined Oral Contraceptives (COC), combined pills are made up of a combination of two hormones, estrogen and progesterone. A literature review was done to see the effect of combined pills on weight. The researcher did not find any evidence that suggests that consumption of combined pills can cause weight gain (9).

  • Progestin-only Pills

Progestin pills are a type of oral contraceptive which contains the female hormone progestin, which is used to prevent the eggs from becoming fertilized. Research has shown that progestin pills do not cause any significant increase in weight (10).

We can see from the above points that both combined pills and progestin-only pills have indicated that there is no association between them and weight gain. More research is needed to be done in this area to come to a conclusion. Let us check out the ways to prevent weight gain after starting birth control.

How Can You Prevent Short-term Weight Gain After Starting Birth Control?

Studies have shown that most contraceptives have shown that there may not be any risk of gaining weight once you start using your choice of birth control. Even if you do gain weight, it is mostly due to water retention which goes away within a few months. But if you are still worried about gaining those extra pounds, then you can follow these simple tips that can prevent you from gaining those extra pounds and help you lead an overall healthy lifestyle.

  • Exercise

Every doctor in the world will say this without fail. No matter how many doctors you visit, they will all say and will continue to say that you must engage in physical activity to keep your body healthy. Physical activity is beneficial for not only losing weight, keeping your metabolism churning regularly, but also for providing a better lifestyle.

  • Drinking Water Daily

Drinking seven to eight glasses of water everyday is a must. It not only avoids bloating, but also keeps your hunger pangs and snack cravings at bay. This protects you from gaining any extra weight.

  • Eating The Right Food

Eating food that nourishes your body is imperative for a long and healthy life. Eating a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, proteins and avoiding spicy and processed food can help you reduce weight and lead a healthier life.

Getting your daily intake of water, some physical exercise and eating the right food can help you prevent those numbers from going up. Let us see what are the other factors that contribute to you gaining weight.

Summary

Now that we are at the end of this article, the question that has been playing in your mind is, “Does birth control make you gain weight?” Research states that some forms of birth control do not make you gain weight, but birth control shots have been shown to indicate a gain in weight.  Factors such as genetics, and water retention have been put forward by experts as factors that may contribute to weight gain. Before you start birth control, it is always recommended that you see your healthcare provider or your doctor for further information. Exercising daily and eating well can go a long way in helping you keep those pounds off!

Sources

Articles on StyleCraze are backed by verified information from peer-reviewed and academic research papers, reputed organizations, research institutions, and medical associations to ensure accuracy and relevance. Read our editorial policy to learn more.

  1. Changes in Weight Total Fat Percent Body Fat and Central-to-peripheral Fat Ratio Associated with Injectable and Oral Contraceptive Use
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19254592/
  2. Weight Change and Adverse Event Incidence with a Low-dose Oral Contraceptive: Two Randomized Placebo-controlled Trials
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11672550/
  3. An Exploratory Analysis on the Influence of Genetic Variants on Weight Gain Among Etonogestrel Contraceptive Implant Users
    https://www.contraceptionjournal.org/article/S0010-7824(20)30150-5/fulltext
  4. Contraception: Do Hormonal Contraceptives Cause Weight Gain?
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441582/
  5. Combination Contraceptives: Effects on Weight
    https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003987.pub5/full
  6. Weight Gain Associated With LARC Within a Racially Diverse Patient Population
    https://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Abstract/2020/05001/Weight_Gain_Associated_With_LARC_Within_a_Racially.355.aspx
  7. Effects on Cycle Control and Bodyweight of the Combined Contraceptive Ring NuvaRing Versus an Oral Contraceptive Containing 30 Microg Ethinyl Estradiol and 3 mg Drospirenone
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16763008/
  8. Association of Progestin Contraceptive Implant and Weight Gain
    https://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Fulltext/2016/03000/Association_of_Progestin_Contraceptive_Implant_and.21.aspx
  9. Weight Gain on the Combined Pill–is it Real?
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11045873/
  10. Progestin-only Contraceptives: Effects on Weight
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27567593/
Was this article helpful?
The following two tabs change content below.