Lutein and zeaxanthin are two important carotenoids found in nature. These pigments are available in several fruits and vegetables. The benefits of lutein and zeaxanthin include fighting against chronic illnesses and promoting human health. Both these potent antioxidants are also known to promote eye health. This article explores foods that are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, their health benefits, dosage, and possible side effects. Keep reading.
In This Article
What Are Lutein And Zeaxanthin?
Lutein and zeaxanthin are two types of carotenoids. Carotenoids are compounds that give foods their characteristic color. They act as antioxidants and play a vital role in several bodily functions, including promoting eye and skin health (1), (2), (3).
Lutein and zeaxanthin are primarily found in the macula of the human eye. They are the xanthophylls that play different roles in the biological systems – as important structural molecules in cell membranes, as short-wavelength light filters, and as keepers of the redox balance.
Both these antioxidants have a similar structure and provide a range of health benefits. However, they are most popular for their beneficial effects on human eyes.
Which Foods Are Rich In Lutein And Zeaxanthin?
Below is a list of food items rich in the antioxidants.
|Food||Amount of Lutein & Zeaxanthin in 100 g|
|Kale (cooked)||19.7 mg|
|Winter Squash (cooked(||1.42 mg|
|Collards (cooked)||10.9 mg|
|Yellow sweet corn (canned)||1.05 mg|
|Spinach (cooked)||11.31 mg|
|Swiss chard (cooked)||11.01 mg|
|Green Peas (cooked)||2.59 mg|
|Arugula (raw)||3.55 mg|
|Brussels Sprouts (cooked||1.29 mg|
|Broccoli rabe (cooked)||1.68 mg|
|Pumpkin (cooked)||1.01 mg|
|Egg Yolks fresh (raw)||1.1 mg|
|Sweet Potatoes leaves (cooked)||2.63 mg|
|Carrots (raw)||0.36 mg|
|Asparagus (cooked)||0.77 mg|
|Mustard greens (cooked)||5.96 mg|
|Beet greens (cooked)||1.82 mg|
|Dandelion greens (cooked)||3.40 mg|
|Garden Cress (cooked)||8.40 mg|
|Turnip greens (cooked)||8.44 mg|
Source: USDA National Nutrient Database
What Are The Health Benefits Of Lutein And Zeaxanthin?
1. Promote Eye Health
A diet with a good amount of lutein and zeaxanthin increases the concentration of macular pigments, preventing the onset of age-related macular degeneration.
Both these antioxidants are concentrated at the central fovea of the macula and form the macular pigments. They are known to protect the macular region from photo-oxidative injury. They achieve this by scavenging the reactive oxygen species and filtering blue light.
Lutein and zeaxanthin are also known to improve macular pigment optical density, visual acuity (clarity of vision), and contrast sensitivity (visual ability to distinguish an object from its background) in patients with early AMD (4), (5). An increase in the intake of these carotenoids may be protective against late AMD (6).
Studies have shown that lutein and zeaxanthin may also reduce the risk of cataract (7), (8). Cataract (clouding of the lens of the eye) is another major vision disorder affecting the elderly. Though cataracts mostly occur due to age, they also are caused by oxidative stress, diabetes, exposure to toxic elements/pollutants, radiation, and as a side effect of certain medications (including corticosteroids).
2. Benefit The Skin
Lutein and zeaxanthin exhibit powerful antioxidant properties, which help promote skin health. Much like the eyes, our skin also suffers damage due to oxidative stress, UV exposure, and blue light.
These can cause DNA damage and alter collagen turnover (a type of protein responsible for skin structure and elasticity). This can result in tanning due to the overproduction of melanin and may even increase the risk of skin cancer (9).
These are the two major benefits of lutein and zeaxanthin. Apart from the many food sources, one can also experience the goodness of these antioxidants through supplements.
A Note On Lutein And Zeaxanthin Supplements
Supplementation for these twin carotenoids has been found to be as effective as consuming them through diet. However, getting them from natural sources, like green leafy vegetables, fruits, eggs, and others, is preferable.
But getting enough of these from diet alone may get difficult, especially if one is busy with their work commitments. If this is the case, supplementation can help. It is an effective method to ensure adequate intake of these powerful antioxidants.
Lutein and zeaxanthin are two carotenoids that are often used in supplement form. They are both antioxidants that help protect against free radical damage, which may cause oxidative stress in cells and lead to cellular damage. Oxidative stress has also been linked to many diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.
The market is flooded with a host of supplements. If you are wondering how to choose the right one, the following factors can help:
- The actual amount of lutein and zeaxanthin in them
- Comparison with the formulations mentioned in the two clinical studies, AREDS and AREDS2 (AREDS stands for Age Related Eye Disease Study) (12)
The best approach, though, would be to ask your doctor to prescribe the right supplement.
How Much Of Lutein And Zeaxanthin Should You Take Daily?
Currently, there is no set Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for lutein and zeaxanthin. However, research has found that supplementing with 10 mg of lutein and 2 mg of zeaxanthin could be beneficial for overall health (including that of the eye and skin) (13).
This amount is based on studies conducted on humans and animals. There have not been any studies done on cannabis plants. However, we do know that they contain high levels of carotenoid compounds. Therefore, we recommend taking this dosage to ensure optimal health benefits.
What Are The Side Effects Associated With Lutein And Zeaxanthin?
There is no concrete research here. Some sources say that taking up to 20 mg of lutein and zeaxanthin is safe. Ensure you check with your doctor.
Studies show that excess intake of carotenoids may lead to carotenoderma (a yellow-orange skin discoloration). This condition is not harmful and usually subsides by reducing the intake of carotenoids (14).
There are no known toxic side effects of taking too much lutein and zeaxanthin, though. However, there is no evidence available to determine the safety of their supplementation in children and pregnant and breastfeeding women. Hence, please check with your doctor.
Lutein and zeaxanthin are the commonly found natural antioxidants. They are responsible for imparting colors to fruits and vegetables. The benefits of lutein and zeaxanthin include forming eye pigments, preventing eye disorders, and evening out your skin tone. These antioxidants are primarily beneficial to your eyes and skin. You can reap their benefits by consuming foods and vegetables such as kale, spinach, swiss chard, or dietary supplements. However, excess consumption can lead to a few side effects. Seek medical advice if you experience any adverse effects.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is 20 mg of lutein a day too much?
Studies have found that taking up to 20 mg of lutein every day is safe. However, as per studies, an intake of 10 mg of lutein and 2 mg of zeaxanthin is adequate for their eye and skin benefits. Moreover, intake of 20 mg of lutein was not found to be more effective than 10 mg of lutein intake (15).
Does cooking destroy lutein and zeaxanthin?
No, it doesn’t. Although the heat decreases the carotenoid content, it may enhance the bioavailability of the carotenoids (15).
Which fruits are high in lutein?
Kiwi fruit, red seedless grapes, oranges, ripe mangoes, green grapes, yellow squash, red apples, dried apricots, ripe papaya, etc. are good sources of lutein (16).
- Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are found in the macula of the human eye.
- Kale, collards, spinach, and pumpkin are some foods that are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin.
- These carotenoids can promote skin and eye health.
- Lutein and zeaxanthin can also be taken in the form of supplements.
- The role of carotenoids in human health, Nutrition in Clinical Care, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease, Molecular Aspects of Medicine, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- β-Carotene and Other Carotenoids, Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids.
- Lutein and Zeaxanthin Supplementation and Association With Visual Function in Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Investigative Ophthalmology of Visual Science.
- Dietary Sources of Lutein and Zeaxanthin Carotenoids and Their Role in Eye Health, Nutrients, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Lutein and zeaxanthin intake and the risk of age-related macular degeneration: A systematic review and meta-analysis, ResearchGate.
- Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and the risk of age-related nuclear cataract among the elderly Finnish population, The British Journal of Nutrition, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health
- Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and other carotenoids as modifiable risk factors for age-related maculopathy and cataract: the POLA Study, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- UV Radiation and the Skin, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Overall skin tone and skin-lightening-improving effects with oral supplementation of lutein and zeaxanthin isomers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Lutein and zeaxanthin in eye and skin health, Clinics in Dermatology, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- What the Age-Related Eye Disease Studies means for you, National Eye Institute.
- Secondary Analyses of the Effects of Lutein/Zeaxanthin on Age-Related Macular Degeneration Progression AREDS2 Report No.3, JAMA Ophthalmology, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Carotenodermia in men with elevated carotenoid intake from foods and beta-carotene supplements, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Lutein and Zeaxanthin—Food Sources, Bioavailability and Dietary Variety in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Protection, Nutrients, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
- Fruits and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes, British Journal of Ophthalmology.