The purplish hue and rich fruit flavor of the red wine may catch more attention than white wine. Red wine also tastes bolder while white wine has more of a floral aroma. However, both the wine varieties are said to improve cardiovascular health, thanks to the presence of bioactive compounds like polyphenols. But are there any differences between these two other than their appearance or taste? Does red wine offer the same benefits as white wine?
This article explores the differences between red wine and white wine, their nutrition, benefits, side effects, and their preparation process. Keep reading.
In This Article
Red Wine Vs. White Wine
Red and white wines have both similarities and differences. The type of grapes used and the way they are fermented and stored differs for both these varieties.
Red wine is made with red grapes with skin intact, which gives this beverage its ruby (or purplish as it ages) hue. However, the skin is retained in the making of white wine. Coming to their nutritional components, red wine is rich in plant compounds like polyphenols. Resveratrol is a primary polyphenol in red wine that has antioxidant effects (1). This drink also contains tannins, which are responsible for its bitter taste and astringency (2). On the other hand, white wine is lower in tannins. So, people who do not enjoy the drying effect of highly tannic drinks or those with tannin sensitivity may choose white wine over the red variant.
Their storage processes are also different. While red wine is matured in oak barrels, white wine is aged in cast iron vessels. Besides, red wine is made with significantly fewer sulfites and sugar than the other versions. These compounds may cause headaches, stomach pain, and diarrhea in some people. Moreover, red wine has a rich and bitter taste while white wine has a sharp and citrusy flavor.
You can find different varieties of red and white wines depending on their alcohol content, the grapes used, and the flavors added. Let us check them out in the following section.
Types Of Red Wine And White Wine
i) Types Of Red Wine
- Cabernet Sauvignon
It is one of the world’s most widely recognized full-bodied (more than 13.5% alcohol) red wines. It pairs well with a short rib, lamb, or burger.
It tastes like cherries and chocolate. This dark-blue wine does not leave your mouth dry and goes well with spaghetti, pizza, or chicken.
This beverage comes with concentrated and juicy fruit flavors. It is made from black-skinned grapes and goes well with pasta or pork ribs.
Also known as Shiraz, it is produced from a dark grape variety. It is spicy, bold, and peppery with a blackberry flavor. This drink goes well with a charcuterie plate.
It is a full-bodied red wine produced from purple grapes. This crowd-pleaser is available in cherry or plum flavors, which go well with flank steak or any spicier foods.
- Pinot Noir
Produced from black-skinned grapes, it is a lighter-bodied (less than 12.5% alcohol) wine of longevity and complexity. It tastes like cranberry or raspberry and pairs well with sushi or salmon.
It is produced from Italian red wine grapes and is a medium-bodied (12.5 to 13.5% alcohol) beverage that tastes like soil, tobacco, and pepper. You can drink pasta or pizza with this red wine.
The drink is produced from another Italian grape variety and comes with anise and rose aromas. It goes well with goose or wild boar.
ii) Types Of White Wines
It is the world’s most popular white wine made from green-skinned grapes. This medium to full-bodied, dry beverage is available in flavors ranging from apple to papaya. Also, it is best paired with prawns, crabs, cod, or lobster.
- Sauvignon Blanc
Also known as grassy, this wine is known for its refreshing crispness. It is packed with acidic or citrus aromas and goes well with chicken, seafood, or seasoned vegetarian dishes.
It is a sparkling sweet, fizzy white wine made with Moscato Bianco grapes. It has low alcohol content and pairs well with desserts, cucumbers, carrots, and celery.
- Pinot Grigio
It is a zesty, light-bodied wine loaded with floral aromas. It comes in pear, lime, and green apple flavors along with a faint honey note. You can enjoy this drink pairing with pasta, other vegetarian foods, and seafood.
It is an aromatic and refreshing white wine, which goes well with delicate fish.
This full-bodied white wine has a jasmine and spring blossom scent and comes in peach and apricot flavors. It pairs well with seafood or roasted meats.
The presence of several plant compounds in red wine makes this beverage healthy in a way. We discuss each of its benefits in the following section. Keep reading.
Health Benefits Of Red Wine
1) May Help Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Polyphenols like resveratrol in red wine may help prevent the clumping of platelets and reduce the risk of blood clots. Resveratrol also helps combat free radicals and is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk (1). Studies suggest that this highly beneficial polyphenol may also be an effective option to treat metabolic syndrome, which otherwise elevates the risk of heart disease (3). Moreover, resveratrol also has beneficial effects against atherosclerosis (plaque buildup in arteries), hypertension, ischemia (reduced blood flow), heart failure, diabetes, obesity, and aging (4). Quercetin is another active compound in red wine, which has cardioprotective properties (5). In a study, moderate consumption of red wine for four weeks was found to increase HDL-C and fibrinogen (glycoprotein) levels (6).
2) May Help Treat Type-2 Diabetes
Drinking red wine for two weeks was found to improve insulin resistance in people with type-2 diabetes. Moreover, insulin-mediated whole-body glucose disposal also improved significantly after red wine intake (7).
Some red wines contain a significant amount of alcohol. A study suggests that light to moderate intake of alcohol regularly is inversely linked with the incidence of type-2 diabetes. This phenomenon was found to be dependent on the frequency of alcohol intake and not the type of alcoholic beverage (8).
3) Helps Slow Down Cognitive Decline
Red wine is rich in several polyphenols, including resveratrol, which acts as a neuroprotectant. It modulates metal ion deregulation (which results in neurodegenerative diseases) and reduces oxidative stress. Resveratrol in red wine may also help slow down cognitive decline and improve neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease (9).
All these benefits are subject to light to moderate consumption of red wine. That said, does white wine too have similar benefits? Continue reading to find out.
White Wine Benefits
A study conducted by the University of Barcelona, Spain, found that wine phenolics may offer protection against cardiovascular diseases and cancer (10). White wine phenols possess higher antioxidant properties than red wine phenols, which may help improve cardiovascular conditions (11). Moderate intake of white wine may also help with weight loss in overweight and obese individuals on an energy-restricted diet (12). Besides, wine extracts possess some antioxidant and anti-aging properties that help improve skin health (13).
Red wine and white wine have slight variations in their nutrition profile. We discover them in the following section.
Nutritional Comparison Of Red Wine And White Wine
|Red Wine||White Wine|
|Calcium||11.8 mg||13.2 mg|
|Iron||0.676 mg||0.397 mg|
|Magnesium||17.6 mg||14.7 mg|
|Phosphorous||33.8 mg||26.5 mg|
|Potassium||187 mg||104 mg|
|Zinc||0.206 mg||0.176 mg|
|Niacin||0.329 mg||0.159 mg|
|Vitamin B6||0.084 mg||0.073 mg|
|Riboflavin||0.046 mg||0.022 mg|
|Vitamin K||0.588 µg||0.588 µg|
Red and wine wines have some obvious benefits. However, you cannot ignore their downsides.
Side Effects Of Drinking Red Wine And White Wine
Drinking red and white wines moderately is generally considered safe. However, their excess consumption may cause some side effects. Weekly consumption of at least five standard units (about 50g of alcohol) or more is linked with the risk of malformation during pregnancy. Similarly, intake of at least four standard units of alcohol per week may increase the risk of early neonatal death. Hence, pregnant women are advised to avoid daily consumption of red wine (16). Moreover, wine, especially red wine, can trigger migraine and may even cause headaches in non-migraineurs (17).
White wine contains more sulfites. So, people with and sulfite sensitivity may experience dermatitis, urticaria (hives), flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhea, and life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions following white wine intake (18), (19).
Winemaking involves several steps, from harvesting grapes to fermenting the beverage. Let us delve deeper into the process of winemaking.
Making Of Red Wine And White Wine
i) How Is Red Wine Made?
Step 1: Grapes are handpicked and put through physical processing.
Step 2: Stems and leaves are separated from the fruit (destemming process). The grapes are then lightly crushed and pumped into a stainless steel (or concrete) vessel for fermentation.
Step 3: Solid and liquid phases get separated during this stage. Yeast starts fermentation, and the grape skin starts to float to the surface. The temperature is also controlled as fermentation releases heat. Otherwise, it can impair the flavor.
Step 4: The juice is extracted from the grapes (also called ‘pressing’). Then comes the second stage of microbiological transformation (malolactic fermentation). During this stage, malic acid in the grapes is converted into lactic acid under the influence of bacteria.
Step 5: The red wine is decanted (a sulfur dioxide preservative is added to prevent bacterial spoilage). It is then aged in stainless steel or concrete tanks before bottling (the period varies from a few days to several months).
Step 6: The wine undergoes fining, where any faults (like excess tannins) are corrected.
Step 7: The wine is filtered to remove any yeast cells or bacteria that remain. This, however, depends on the winemaker’s preference.
Step 8: The beverage is bottled.
ii) How Is White Wine Made?
Step 1: The grapes are harvested. Most white wines use green and yellow-colored grapes.
Step 2: The grapes are pressed to extract juice, which gets collected in a tank.
Step 3: The juice is made to sit in the tank until it settles down. This settling process helps remove suspended solids that add bitterness to the finished wine.
Step 4: Yeast is added to start fermentation.
Step 5: The juice is fermented for about 14 days. White wines are fermented at cooler temperatures than red wines to preserve delicate floral aromas.
Step 6: Malolactic fermentation is carried out under bacterial influence. Here, the bacteria eat up malic acid found in the grapes and release lactic acid. The result is a creamy, smooth, and buttery-tasting wine.
Step 7: The wine is made to sit in tanks or barrels for a little while when it is done. Meanwhile, some winemakers use a golf club-like tool to stir the wine. Stirring causes all these little dead yeast particles, called lees, to blend into the wine. The lees add flavor to the wine (tastes like beer or bread), giving it a creamier texture.
Step 8: After the wine has aged enough, it is time to make the blend (the process that adds more balance and flavor to the wine).
tep 9: The wine is still cloudy at this point. Many winemakers add clarifying or fining agents to remove suspended proteins in the wine (proteins make the wine cloudy).
Step 10: The beverage is now bottled with as little exposure to oxygen as possible. A small amount of sulfur dioxide is often added to help preserve the wine.
Both red and white wines have beneficial effects on health if consumed in moderation. However, red wine is considered the healthier of the two as it helps improve heart health, lower cholesterol levels, and slow down cognitive decline. If you like bold flavors, go for red wine. White wine is also said to reduce weight gain and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, a higher intake of any wine may trigger migraine headaches and other side effects due to their alcohol content. Hence, moderation is key.
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- Contribution of Red Wine Consumption to Human Health Protection
- Tannins in Food: Insights into the Molecular Perception of Astringency and Bitter Taste
- Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases
- Resveratrol in cardiovascular health and disease
- Red wine: A drink to your heart
- Effect of red wine and red grape extract on \’blood lipids\’ \’haemostatic factors\’ and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease
- Red wine consumption improves insulin resistance but not endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients
- Diabetes mellitus: oxidative stress and wine
- Resveratrol and Alzheimer’s disease: message in a bottle on red wine and cognition
- Beneficial effects of white wines
- Cardioprotection with white wine
- Effects of moderate consumption of white wine on weight loss in overweight and obese subjects
- Identifying a Role of Red and White Wine Extracts in Counteracting Skin Aging: Effects of Antioxidants on Fibroblast Behavior
- \’Alcoholic beverag\’ \’wine\’ \’table\’ red
- \’Alcoholic beverage\’ \’wine\’ \’table\’ white
- Pregnancy and alcohol: \’occasional\’ light drinking may be safe
- Wine and headache
- Allergic and intolerance reactions to wine
- Adverse reactions to the sulphite additives